Since the TFA came into force, countries have extended their trade facilitation policy to trade logistics and include measures to improve „hard infrastructure.” For example, the adoption of measures to improve the quality of infrastructure related to trade and transport (for example. B ports and airport facilities and operations) and the modernization of national public management systems using computer tools such as individual electronic windows, automated port operations or commercial information portals. UNCTAD has extensive experience in these areas to support TF reforms in development and transformation economies through tools such as the automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA) and business information portals. However, services remain less marketable than goods, particularly industrial goods. This is because countries have faced a large number of discriminatory barriers and procedural and administrative constraints against service exporters, particularly for small and medium-sized service exporters. There are several national regulations imposed by industrialized countries on service distributors. To facilitate the implementation of the technical and institutional obligations arising from the 2017 WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, UNCTAD`s Trade Facilitation Programme (2020a) improves trade processes and competitiveness for developing countries, including countries in transition, least developed countries in LDCs developing countries and small island developing states. The programme aims to support trade facilitation reforms and countries` ability to comply with applicable international and regional rules and standards, including commitments of the Wto World Trade Organization. The effectiveness of the programme relies not only on strong cooperation with external partners such as the World Customs Organization and the International Trade Centre, but also with other UNCTAD experts working to interface commercial facilities with customs automation and e-commerce The sale or purchase of goods or services made through computer networks using methods specifically designed for receiving or awarding contracts; it may include business-to-business (B2B) or business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions.
or non-tariff measures Non-tariff measures (NBMs) are measures other than ordinary tariffs that may affect international trade in goods, changes in quantities or prices, or both technical barriers to trade, price controls, etc. Full implementation of FTAs is estimated to reduce trade costs by an average of 14.3% and boost world trade by up to $1 trillion per year, with the highest growth in the poorest countries. For the first time in the history of the WTO, the implementation of the agreement is directly linked to the country`s ability to do so. A Trade Facilitation Mechanism (TFAF) has been set up to ensure that developing and least developed countries receive the assistance they need to take full advantage of the benefits of the TFA. The main feature of the TFS project is that it proposes rules for the four types of services classified under the WTO`s General Agreement on Trade of Services (GATS). The tfS project contains the following proposals for these four types of procurement: in business practices there is a trend towards parallel easing of procedures related to trade (flexible infrastructure) as well as commercial structures and transport operations (hard infrastructure). Many transportation service providers are „pooling” more and more transportation and logistics services to enable optimized operation (i.e. improve efficiency and reduce costs) while providing value-added services to customers.
For example, in the maritime sector, several shipping companies are becoming logistics integrators through IT platforms, and vertical integration is entering