In accordance with other bilateral free trade agreements, Schedule II of the trade agreement contains the rules of origin and origin to determine whether a product can benefit from preferential treatment. For the purposes of the trade agreement, a property comes from Japan if it meets one of the following criteria: U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee, Joint Statement of the Security Consultative Committee, April 19, 2019, www.mofa.go.jp/files/000470738.pdf; Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA, „Sixth Annual Sasakawa USA Security Forum focused on New Security Challenges for the U.S.- Japan Alliance,” April 30, 2019, on spfusa.org/sasakawa-blog/sixth-annual-sasakawa-usa-security-forum-focused-on-new-security-challenges-for-the-u-s-japan-alliance/. During his cabinet reshuffle in September 2019, Abe attacked emerging star Shinjiro Koizumi, son of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, as environment minister and minister of state for nuclear emergencies prevention. At 38, Koizumi is one of Japan`s youngest ministers and is considered by many to be a candidate for prime minister in the future. Shortly after his appointment, Koizumi went to the UN climate summit and made waves in the press, declaring climate change „cool” and „sexy.” 12 Despite Koizumi`s high-level role, Japan`s environmental record has been attacked in recent years by other members of the international climate community, particularly its coal policy. At the September 2019 UNITED Nations climate change summit, Japan was not invited to speak because the UN Secretary-General asked countries present to stop building new coal-fired power plants.13 (The United States was also excluded because of President Trump`s decision to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement.) Since the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, Japan has adopted a more coal-intensive energy portfolio to fill gaps in nuclear power generation. (The background information is available in the „Energy and Environmental Issues” section.) 4. www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/joint-statement-united-states-japan/. However, the relative importance of bilateral economic relations has probably diminished as other countries, including China, have become increasingly important global economic players. Over the past decade (2008-2018), U.S.
goods exports to the world have increased by 28%, while exports to Japan have increased by less than 13%. Similarly, the United States