The WTO continues to classify these agreements as follows: A major trend over the past 25 years has been the creation and growth of free trade zones between nations that agree on the formation of regional trading blocs. Agreements that create free trade zones all have the same objectives: trade liberalization, promoting economic growth and equal market access between Member States. Among the initial members of the GATT, Syria and the SFR Yugoslavia (SFRY) have not re-joined the WTO. Since the FR Yugoslavia (later renamed Serbia and Montenegro) is not recognized as a direct successor state to the SFRY, its application is recognized as new (non-GATT). On 4 May 2010, the WTO General Council decided to set up a working group to review Syria`s application for WTO membership. The contracting parties that created the WTO terminated the 1947 GATT formal agreement on 31 December 1995. Serbia and Montenegro is in the decision-making phase and is expected to become the newest wto members in 2012 or in the near future. The main free trade zones are the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Association of South Asian Nations (ASEAN). To model the asymmetry of the multilateral trading system, Bowen (2013) introduces random political shocks in the competing import sectors of each country, designated by the political parameters ,i) of Section 2.2.1. These shocks are random but publicly observable, which prevents any information on the implementation of trade agreements analyzed in the previous subsection. However, such shocks may further encourage governments to deviate if they are forced to tolerate a series of less favourable bilateral tariffs, which depend on the realization of political shocks requiring asymmetric tariffs. If the discount factor is not high enough to impose the most cooperative quota duties within the multilateral penal system, the mechanism can set the maximum number of less favourable bilateral tariffs that each government must tolerate.
Governments are allowed to impose their static tariffs on the Nash if they are in a bilateral trade relationship where at least one country is facing political shocks resulting in less favourable bilateral tariffs that exceed that ceiling. Referring to this maximum number as an indulgence, Bowen (2013) characterizes the leniency allowed in a multilateral cooperative political balance (designated by q) for a given discount factor, and shows that this q is approached by an increasing linear function of the number of countries. Such an outcome has been interpreted as an additional benefit of multilateralism. Bowen also shows that the leniency factor calculated by division q by the number of countries increases, with the discount factor and the volume of bilateral trade, indicating that the stability of the multilateral trade agreement improves with the increase in the volume of bilateral trade. The implementation of NAFTA on January 1, 1994 resulted in the immediate removal of tariffs on more than half of Mexican exports to the United States and more than one-third of U.S. exports to Mexico. Within 10 years of the implementation of the agreement, all U.S.-Mexico tariffs would be eliminated, with the exception of some U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico, which were to expire within 15 years. Most U-Canada trade was already duty-free. NAFTA also aims to remove non-tariff barriers and protect the intellectual property rights of products. The author of this article on Africa calls on Uganda and other African countries to oppose Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with the EU and to use tariffs and subsidies to stimulate economic growth.